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Don Healy's
NATIVE AMERICAN FLAGS

References & Guide to Instream Footnotes

Note: This work is primarily concerned with the flags of the various Native American tribes found in the United States. To fully understand the symbols employed by the tribes, it is necessary to know at least a little about the people themselves. To this end, these books became a constant resource in providing the thumbnail sketches of very complex histories, beliefs and achievements. The reader interested in furthering their understanding of the cultures embodied by the Native Americans are urged to look to these resources and others for more detailed information.

LeRoy H. Appleton, American Indian Design & Decoration, [New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1971] Code: AIDD

Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, 1989 Tribal Directory of Arizona Indian Tribes, [Phoenix: Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, 1989] Code : TDAI

Arlene Hirschfelder & Martha Kreipe de Montano, The Native American Almanac, [New York: Prentice Hall General Reference, 1993] Code: NAA

Arnold Marquis, A Guide to America's Indians, [Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974] Code: GAI

Whitney Smith, The Flag Book of the United States, [New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970] Code: FBUS70

Whitney Smith, The Flag Book of the United States,(revised edition), [New York: William Morrow & Co., 1975] Code: FBUS

John Upton Terrell, American Indian Almanac,[New York: Barnes & Nobles Books, 1970] Code: AIA

Carl Waldman, Atlas of the North American Indian, [New York: Facts on File Inc.,1985] Code: ANAI

Carl Waldman, Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, [New York: Facts on File Inc., 1988] Code: ENAT

Clark Wissler, Indians of the United States, [New York: Anchor Books,1940] Code: IUS 

Acknowledgments

Many individuals contributed to this work. Amongst them were:

  • The various tribal officials who took time to answer letters or phone calls and patiently explained their flags to the author.
  • Special mention to the United Sioux Tribes of South Dakota and the Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin who helped supply contacts to additional tribes and provided photographs of several flags that had long eluded the author.
  • Chief Roy Crazy Horse of the Powhattan Renape Nation who urged me on and kept telling me this was a worthwhile project.
  • Dr. Whitney Smith. Director of the Flag Research Center who made his files available and even went digging through them to find every shred of documentation the Center possessed.
  • Annin & Co., flag manufacturers who went through their files and supplied many of the tribal seals.
  • NAVA members such as Harry Oswald, Don Klett, Glenn Nolan, Devereaux Cannon, Jim White, and Jim Ferrigan who helped track down designs from tribes in their geographic neighborhoods.
  • Good friend John Anastasio who spent many hours scanning in flag photos so that they could be "cleaned up" for presentation.
  • Good friend Greg Foster who patiently acted as initial editor, reading a text for which he had not the slightest interest.
  • NAVA Treasurer and artiste par excellance - Peter Orenski - whose artisitic talents created all the artwork seen in both the book and chart.

Thanks to all! Without you this would not have been possible.

Don Healy, Bisbee, Az 85603